Inner Piedmont Belt - The Inner Piedmont Belt is
the most intensely deformed and metamorphosed segment of the Piedmont.
The metamorphic rocks range from 500 to 750 milllion years in age. They
include gneiss and schist that have been intruded by younger granitic
rocks. The northeast-trending Brevard fault zone forms much of the
boundary between the Blue Ridge and the Inner Piedmont belts. Although
this zone of strongly deformed rocks is one of the major structural
features in the southern Appalachians, its origin is poorly understood.
Crushed stone for road aggregate and building construction is the
principal commodity produced.
Kings Mountain Belt - The belt consists of moderately deformed and metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The rocks are about 400-500 million years old. Lithium deposits here provide raw materials for chemical compounds, ceramics, glass, greases, batteries and television glass.
Milton Belt - This belt consists of gneisses, schist and metamorphosed intrusive rocks. The principal mineral resource is crushed stone forroad aggregate and buidlings.
Charlotte Belt - The belt consists mostly of igneous rocks such as granite, diorite and gabbro. These are 300-500 million years old. The igneous rocks are good sources for crushed and dimension stone for road aggregate and buildings.
Carolina Slate Belt - This belt consists of heated and deformed volcanic and sedimentary rocks. It was the site of a series of oceanic volcanic islands abou 550-650 million years ago. The belt is known for its numerous abandoned gold mines and prospects. North Carolina led the nation in gold production before the California Gold Rush of 1849. In recent decades, only monor gold mining has taken place, but mining companies continue to show interest in the area. Mineral production is crushed stone for road aggregate and pyrophyllite for refactories, ceramics, filler, paint and insecticide carriers.
Triassic basins - The basins are filled with sedimentary rocks that formed about 190-200 million years ago. Streams carried mud, silt, sand and gravel from adjacent highlands in rift valleys similar to those of Africa today. The mudstones are mined and processed to make brick, sewer pipe, structural tile and drain pipe.
Raleigh belt - The Raleigh belt contains granite, gneiss and schist. In the 19th century there were a number of small building stone quarries in this region, but today the main mineral product is crushed stone for construction and road aggregate.
Eastern Slate Belt - This belt contains
slightly metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks similar to those
of the Carolina slate belt. The rocks are poorly exposed and partially
covered by the Coastal Plain sediments.The metamorphic rocks, 500-600
million years old, are intruded by younger, approximately 300
million-year-old, granitic bodies. Gold was once mined in the belt, and
small occurrances of molybdenite, and ore of molybdenum, have been
prospected here. Crushed stone, clay, sand and gravel are currently
mined in this belt.
The geology of the area in the piedmont and triassic basins can affect the soils because of the parent materials that can be found in each location. In the Piedmont, soils were mainly formed from acid igneous rocks that are rich in alumnium and silicates, but not in calcium, magnesium and phosphorous. Sediment was eroded from the mountains and deposited in the Triassic basin. Organic material is then mixed with the parent material in order to form soils. Climate also has an impact on soil formation.
Beyer, Fred. North Carolina The Years Before
Man. Carolina Academic: 1991.
Buol, S.W. Formation of Soils in North
http://agronomy.agr.state.nc.us/sssnc/3soilform.pdf. November 28,
Horton, J. W. and Victora A. Zullo, eds. The Geology of the Carolinas. University of Tennessee: Knoxville, 1991.NC Geological Survey. "Geology of North Carolina." http://gw.ehnr.state.nc.us/faq.htm. November 24, 2003.